Keep the earth clean otherwise it may be
Reduce pollution to keep the planet green
Some of the hottest topics in both science and
politics at the moment are climate change and other environmental
issues. These changes are driven by many complex interacting factors -
some biological, some physical, and some created by humans.
Environmental Issues in India
Environmental issues in India include various natural hazards,
particularly cyclones and annual monsoon floods, population growth,
increasing individual consumption, industrialization, infrastructural
development, poor agricultural practices, and resource maldistribution
have led to substantial human transformation of India’s natural
environment. An estimated 60% of cultivated land suffers from soil
erosion, waterlogging, and salinity. It is also estimated that between
4.7 and 12 billion tons of topsoil are lost annually from soil erosion.
From 1947 to 2002, average annual per capita water availability declined
by almost 70% to 1,822 cubic meters, and overexploitation of groundwater
is problematic in the states of Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh.
Forest area covers 19.4% of India’s geographic area (637000 km˛). Nearly
half of the country’s forest cover is found in the state of Madhya
Pradesh (20.7%) and the seven states of the northeast (25.7%); the
latter is experiencing net forest loss. Forest cover is declining
because of harvesting for fuel wood and the expansion of agricultural
land. These trends, combined with increasing industrial and motor
vehicle pollution output, have led to atmospheric temperature increases,
shifting precipitation patterns, and declining intervals of drought
recurrence in many areas. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute has
estimated that a 3 °C rise in temperature will result in a 15 to 20%
loss in annual wheat yields. These are substantial problems for a nation
with such a large population depending on the productivity of primary
resources and whose economic growth relies heavily on industrial growth.
Civil conflicts involving natural resources—most notably forests and
arable land—have occurred in eastern and northeastern states.
By contrast, water resources have not been linked to either domestic or
international violent conflict as was previously anticipated by some
observers. Possible exceptions include some communal violence related to
distribution of water from the Kaveri River and political tensions
surrounding actual and potential population displacements by dam
projects, particularly on the Narmada River.
Top of Page
Global environmental trends have reached a
dangerous crossroads as the new century begins as signs of accelerated
ecological decline have coincided with a loss of political momentum on
environmental issues, as evidenced by the recent breakdown of global
climate talks. This failure calls into question whether the world will
be able to turn these trends around before the economy suffers
New scientific evidence indicates that many global ecosystems are
reaching dangerous thresholds that raise the stakes for policymakers.
The Arctic ice cap has already thinned by 42 percent, and 27 percent of
the world's coral reefs have been lost, suggesting that some of the
planet's key ecological systems are in decline. Environmental
degradation is also leading to more severe natural disasters.
Unless fossil fuel use slows dramatically, the Earth's temperature could
rise to as high as 6 degrees above the 1990 level by 2100, according to
the latest climate models. Such an increase could lead to acute water
shortages, declining food production, and the proliferation of deadly
diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.
One sign of ecological decline is the risk of extinction that hangs over
dozens of species of frogs and other amphibians around the globe, due to
pressures that range from deforestation to ozone depletion. Ashley
Mattoon describes amphibians as "an important bio-indicator - a sort of
barometer of Earth's health-more sensitive to environmental stress than
Environmental decline is also exacting a toll on people. Even after a
decade of declining poverty in many nations, 1.2 billion people lack
access to clean water and hundreds of millions breathe unhealthy air.
And poor people in countries such as the Philippines and Mexico are
pushed to destroy forests and coral reefs in a desperate effort to raise
living standards. In 1998-1999 alone, over 120,000 people were killed
and millions were displaced mainly poor people in regions such as India
and Latin America.
Population growth has led people to settle in flood-prone valleys and
unstable hillsides, where deforestation and climate change have
increased their vulnerability to disasters.
Some early signs of progress have emerged in the past year:
With oil, natural gas, and electricity prices all rising simultaneously
during the past year, the world has had a timely reminder that
over-dependence on geographically concentrated fossil fuels is a recipe
for economic instability. In many regions, renewable energy is now the
most economical and inflation-proof energy source available, and can be
installed much faster than the three-year minimum for a natural
gas-fired power plant.
Got a Choice
Energy Vs Pollution: How to clean the air?
The new growth wave on emerging trends in corporate social
responsibility aims at evaluating impacts the globalization might have
on natural environment and global environmental and energy policy
An ongoing debate on inter-relationships among trade/investment, energy
and environment, its footprints on environment and climate and quality
of energy business in terms of natural environments in countries
exporting environmental goods and energy services in the context of
producers and consumers of a variety of energy resources viz carbon,
hydrogen and renewable across the globe, including developing and
transition economies, has already taken a significant shape.
Energy use and supply is of fundamental importance to society and, with
the possible exception of agriculture and forestry, has made the
greatest impact on the environment of any human activity a result of
large-scale and pervasive nature of energy related activities. Although
energy and environment concerns were originally local in character for
example, problems associated with extraction, transport or noxious
emissions they have now widened to cover regional and global issues such
as acid rain, trans boundary impacts of energy use and the greenhouse
Such problems have now become major political issues and the subject of
international debate and regulation. It is for this reason that there is
a need for the emergence of new growth wave on corporate social
responsibility dedicated to energy and environmental issues on
sustainable development and millennium development goals.
Globalization, energy and environment is an inter-disciplinary corporate
social responsibility in terms of evolving dimensions of society and
business strategies aimed at natural scientists, technologists,
economists and the international social science and policy communities
covering the direct and indirect environmental impacts of energy
acquisition, transport, production and use.
A particular objective of the debate is to cover social, economic and
political dimensions of such issues at local, regional and international
level. The relatively recent awareness about environmental concerns have
convinced the policy makers to extend their attention beyond the
black-box, least-cost models and consider other aspects of their policy
decisions. As such, the policy makers have now moved ahead of analysis
in taking a more comprehensive approach to energy strategy.
Secure, reliable and affordable energy supplies are fundamental to
economic stability and development of the nation. Threat of disruptive
climate change, erosion of energy security and growing energy needs of
emerging economies of Asia like India and China, all pose major
challenges for energy decision makers, as well as energy producers,
traders and consumers.
That can only be met through innovation, adoption of new cost-effective
technologies, and a better use of existing energy efficient
technologies. Energy technology perspectives' present status and
prospects for key energy technologies and assesses their potential; to
make a difference in mid century term, in the following aspects:
How much can technology contribute to securing adequate and affordable
energy supplies and lower CO2 emissions? What energy technologies hold
the most promise? How long will it take?
Numerous innovative works demonstrate how energy technologies can make a
difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail
the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity
generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the
world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO2 emissions by
using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic
elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO2 capture
and storage, renewable energy resources and nuclear power.
While technology does hold great promise for the future, we must act now
if we are to unlock the potential of current and emerging technologies
and reduce the impact of fossil; fuel dependence on energy security and
the environment. The key challenge in global energy policy is to create
an energy system that supports continuing economic development and
considerably reduces the risks of climate change. Energy efficiency is
currently the most affordable tool to mitigate climate change.
The scenarios show how energy related CO2 emissions can be returned to
their current levels by 2050 and the growth of oil demand can be
moderated. It also shows that by 2050, energy efficiency measures can
reduce electricity demand by a third below the baseline levels. Savings
from liquid fuels would equal more than half of today's global oil
consumption, after setting about 56% of growth in oil demand foreseen in
the baseline scenario. The substantial changes demonstrated in the
accelerated technology (ACT) scenarios are grouped in:
• Strong energy efficiency gains in the transport, industry, commercial
and domestic sectors,
• Electricity supply becoming significantly decarbonizes as the power
generation mix shifts towards nuclear power, renewables, natural gas and
coal with CO2 capture and storage,
• Increased use of biofuels for road transport.