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Environmental Issues

It is our responsibility to maintain the beauty and uniqueness of this amazing planet and to make this world a better place for the coming generations.
Keep the earth clean otherwise it may be too late

Reduce polution to keep the planet green
Reduce pollution to keep the planet green

Some of the hottest topics in both science and politics at the moment are climate change and other environmental issues. These changes are driven by many complex interacting factors - some biological, some physical, and some created by humans.

Environmental Issues in India

Environmental issues in India include various natural hazards, particularly cyclones and annual monsoon floods, population growth, increasing individual consumption, industrialization, infrastructural development, poor agricultural practices, and resource maldistribution have led to substantial human transformation of India’s natural environment. An estimated 60% of cultivated land suffers from soil erosion, waterlogging, and salinity. It is also estimated that between 4.7 and 12 billion tons of topsoil are lost annually from soil erosion. From 1947 to 2002, average annual per capita water availability declined by almost 70% to 1,822 cubic meters, and overexploitation of groundwater is problematic in the states of Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh. Forest area covers 19.4% of India’s geographic area (637000 km˛). Nearly half of the country’s forest cover is found in the state of Madhya Pradesh (20.7%) and the seven states of the northeast (25.7%); the latter is experiencing net forest loss. Forest cover is declining because of harvesting for fuel wood and the expansion of agricultural land. These trends, combined with increasing industrial and motor vehicle pollution output, have led to atmospheric temperature increases, shifting precipitation patterns, and declining intervals of drought recurrence in many areas. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute has estimated that a 3 °C rise in temperature will result in a 15 to 20% loss in annual wheat yields. These are substantial problems for a nation with such a large population depending on the productivity of primary resources and whose economic growth relies heavily on industrial growth. Civil conflicts involving natural resources—most notably forests and arable land—have occurred in eastern and northeastern states.
By contrast, water resources have not been linked to either domestic or international violent conflict as was previously anticipated by some observers. Possible exceptions include some communal violence related to distribution of water from the Kaveri River and political tensions surrounding actual and potential population displacements by dam projects, particularly on the Narmada River.
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Our Environment
Global environmental trends have reached a dangerous crossroads as the new century begins as signs of accelerated ecological decline have coincided with a loss of political momentum on environmental issues, as evidenced by the recent breakdown of global climate talks. This failure calls into question whether the world will be able to turn these trends around before the economy suffers irreversible damage.
New scientific evidence indicates that many global ecosystems are reaching dangerous thresholds that raise the stakes for policymakers. The Arctic ice cap has already thinned by 42 percent, and 27 percent of the world's coral reefs have been lost, suggesting that some of the planet's key ecological systems are in decline. Environmental degradation is also leading to more severe natural disasters.
Unless fossil fuel use slows dramatically, the Earth's temperature could rise to as high as 6 degrees above the 1990 level by 2100, according to the latest climate models. Such an increase could lead to acute water shortages, declining food production, and the proliferation of deadly diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.
One sign of ecological decline is the risk of extinction that hangs over dozens of species of frogs and other amphibians around the globe, due to pressures that range from deforestation to ozone depletion. Ashley Mattoon describes amphibians as "an important bio-indicator - a sort of barometer of Earth's health-more sensitive to environmental stress than other organisms."
Environmental decline is also exacting a toll on people. Even after a decade of declining poverty in many nations, 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water and hundreds of millions breathe unhealthy air. And poor people in countries such as the Philippines and Mexico are pushed to destroy forests and coral reefs in a desperate effort to raise living standards. In 1998-1999 alone, over 120,000 people were killed and millions were displaced mainly poor people in regions such as India and Latin America.
Population growth has led people to settle in flood-prone valleys and unstable hillsides, where deforestation and climate change have increased their vulnerability to disasters.
Some early signs of progress have emerged in the past year:
With oil, natural gas, and electricity prices all rising simultaneously during the past year, the world has had a timely reminder that over-dependence on geographically concentrated fossil fuels is a recipe for economic instability. In many regions, renewable energy is now the most economical and inflation-proof energy source available, and can be installed much faster than the three-year minimum for a natural gas-fired power plant.
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You've Got a Choice
Energy Vs Pollution: How to clean the air?

The new growth wave on emerging trends in corporate social responsibility aims at evaluating impacts the globalization might have on natural environment and global environmental and energy policy approaches.

An ongoing debate on inter-relationships among trade/investment, energy and environment, its footprints on environment and climate and quality of energy business in terms of natural environments in countries exporting environmental goods and energy services in the context of producers and consumers of a variety of energy resources viz carbon, hydrogen and renewable across the globe, including developing and transition economies, has already taken a significant shape.

Energy use and supply is of fundamental importance to society and, with the possible exception of agriculture and forestry, has made the greatest impact on the environment of any human activity a result of large-scale and pervasive nature of energy related activities. Although energy and environment concerns were originally local in character for example, problems associated with extraction, transport or noxious emissions they have now widened to cover regional and global issues such as acid rain, trans boundary impacts of energy use and the greenhouse effect.

Such problems have now become major political issues and the subject of international debate and regulation. It is for this reason that there is a need for the emergence of new growth wave on corporate social responsibility dedicated to energy and environmental issues on sustainable development and millennium development goals.

Globalization, energy and environment is an inter-disciplinary corporate social responsibility in terms of evolving dimensions of society and business strategies aimed at natural scientists, technologists, economists and the international social science and policy communities covering the direct and indirect environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use.

A particular objective of the debate is to cover social, economic and political dimensions of such issues at local, regional and international level. The relatively recent awareness about environmental concerns have convinced the policy makers to extend their attention beyond the black-box, least-cost models and consider other aspects of their policy decisions. As such, the policy makers have now moved ahead of analysis in taking a more comprehensive approach to energy strategy.

Energy Technology Perspective
Secure, reliable and affordable energy supplies are fundamental to economic stability and development of the nation. Threat of disruptive climate change, erosion of energy security and growing energy needs of emerging economies of Asia like India and China, all pose major challenges for energy decision makers, as well as energy producers, traders and consumers.

That can only be met through innovation, adoption of new cost-effective technologies, and a better use of existing energy efficient technologies. Energy technology perspectives' present status and prospects for key energy technologies and assesses their potential; to make a difference in mid century term, in the following aspects:

How much can technology contribute to securing adequate and affordable energy supplies and lower CO2 emissions? What energy technologies hold the most promise? How long will it take?

Numerous innovative works demonstrate how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO2 emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO2 capture and storage, renewable energy resources and nuclear power.

While technology does hold great promise for the future, we must act now if we are to unlock the potential of current and emerging technologies and reduce the impact of fossil; fuel dependence on energy security and the environment. The key challenge in global energy policy is to create an energy system that supports continuing economic development and considerably reduces the risks of climate change. Energy efficiency is currently the most affordable tool to mitigate climate change.

The scenarios show how energy related CO2 emissions can be returned to their current levels by 2050 and the growth of oil demand can be moderated. It also shows that by 2050, energy efficiency measures can reduce electricity demand by a third below the baseline levels. Savings from liquid fuels would equal more than half of today's global oil consumption, after setting about 56% of growth in oil demand foreseen in the baseline scenario. The substantial changes demonstrated in the accelerated technology (ACT) scenarios are grouped in:
• Strong energy efficiency gains in the transport, industry, commercial and domestic sectors,
• Electricity supply becoming significantly decarbonizes as the power generation mix shifts towards nuclear power, renewables, natural gas and coal with CO2 capture and storage,
• Increased use of biofuels for road transport.
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